Uzura Morală Programată și Manipularea Consumatorului    

 

În 1901, un bec electric a fost instalat într-o cazarmă de pompieri din Livermore, California (Statele Unite). Acesta a fost aprins și de atunci nu s-a mai stins niciodată. Au trecut între timp mai mult de 100 de ani și becul continuă să lumineze ca în prima zi. Acest bec este unul dintre cei mai curioși indicatori ai unui fenomen numit uzura morală programată.

Dar ce are de fapt acest bec atât de special? În fapt, nimic…El este similar cu cele create de Thomas Alva Edison în 1881, care durau 1500 ore. Becul centenar este doar un model îmbunătățit. Întrebarea evidentă este de ce anumite tehnologii rezistau mai bine înainte, odată cu trecerea timpului? Considerând că tehnologia  ar trebui să avanseze, nu ar fi logic ca astăzi să avem becuri mai bune și nu invers?

Afacerea devine încă și mai misterioasă dacă ne uităm la celelalte aparate moderne. Vechile televizoare durau mai mult timp decât cele moderne. Același lucru se aplică aproape oricărui aparat. De ce? Pur și simplu datorită unui pact, pecetluit în 1924, care a consacrat uzura morală programată în lume.

”Mai mult decât a fi o economie a excesului și a risipei, consumerismul este în  mod egal, și precis din acest motiv, o economie a înșelătoriei. A paria pe iraționalul consumatorilor, și nu pe deciziile lor bine informate, luate la rece; a paria pentru a trezi emoția consumatorului și nu a-i cultiva rațiunea”

   -Zygmunt Bauman-

 

Ce este uzura morală programată?

Uzura programată este practica care consistă în a limita viața utilă a produselor, în mod artificial și deliberat. Acest lucru înseamnă că produsele sunt fabricate într-un asemenea mod încât, după o anumită perioadă de timp, ele încetează să își mai îndeplinească rolul. Nu înseamnă că aceste produse nu pot fi fabricate cu o calitate mai bună ci mai degrabă ca sunt fabricate astfel pentru a genera mai mult consum.

Dacă o persoană cumpără un articol care durează mult timp ea nu va avea nevoie să îl înlocuiască mai mulți ani. În schimb, dacă dispozitivul sau articolul se deteriorează rapid, consumatorul va trebui să-l înlocuiască frecvent. În acest fel cresc vânzările pentru producători.

Becurile nu sunt singurul exemplu de uzură programată. Un caz și mai ilustrativ est cel al ciorapilor de nylon pentru femei. La început, aveau o durabilitate mai mare de un an. Astăzi, ei pot fi purtați cu greu mai mult de două ori la rând.

 

Complotul și alte forme de uzură morală

Numeroase dovezi indică faptul că un puternic grup de industriași s-a reunit la Geneva (Elveția) de Crăciun, în anul 1924. Acest grup este cunoscut sub numele de ”Cartel Phoebus”. Știm că una din primele lui măsuri a fost interdicția de comercializare a unui bec deja brevetat, a cărui durabilitate era mai mare de 100,000 ore. De altfel, acest grup de industriași a stabilit un pact destinat impunerii uzurii morale programate unui anumit număr de alte produse.

Astăzi există un număr foarte mare de uzuri morale programate. Unele dintre ele sunt:

Interente funcționarii: funcționarea unui produs are drept scop ca consumatorul să fie obligat să achiziționeze modelul următor al produsului.

Inerente calității: produsul este programat să înceteze să mai funcționeze corect, după un anumit timp de utilizare.

Inerente dorinței: intervin asupra modei și a tendințelor astfel încât un produs să înceteze să mai fie dorit, și transferând dorința asupra altui model ameliorat sau care încorporează detalii ce ne motivează să ”ne actualizăm”.

Uzura morală programată este astăzi foarte puternic asociată emoțiilor. O actualizare continuă este în mod deliberat planificată, mai ales pentru dispozitivele tehnologice. Aceasta permite crearea dorinței de a cumpăra ultimul model, chiar dacă acesta nu aduce nici o îmbunătățire majoră.

 

A recicla este o formă de libertate

În fine, tot acest sistem de consum are ca obiectiv menținerea unui volum de vânzări ridicat. Uzura programată este o strategie pentru menținerea acestui volum. Lucrul îngrijorător este că, la ora actuală, oamenii nu se uită nici măcar la calitatea sau utilitatea cumpărăturilor. Există o foarte puternică dorință de a cumpăra în permanență.

Ceea ce era o formă de manipulare comercială a devenit o dorință a oamenilor. Indivizii au internalizat uzura morală programată. Ei vor să se debaraseze rapid de obiectele uzate și să le înlocuiască cu altele noi. Acest lucru le dă un sentiment de satisfacție, de control, de putere.

În fața acestor forme de manipulare din ce în ce mai evidente a apărut tendința de reciclare. Această abordare vizează punerea în practică a unei culturi a reutilizării. Obiectivul nu este doar de a limita consumerismul dezlănțuit dar și de a proteja mediul înconjurător.

În plan secund, reciclarea are și un impact psihologic. Ea favorizează o atitudine axată mai mult pe reutilizare decât pe risipire. Reciclarea admite faptul că lucrurile pot fi imperfecte și, totuși, utile și prețioase.

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