Cele Cinci Chei ale Psihologiei Japoneze

 

Psihologia japoneză își găsește originile într-un tip foarte deosebit de psihologie a vieții. Ea consistă în a raționaliza emoțiile și în a le canaliza într-o manieră spirituală. De altfel, japonezii au o înaltă considerație pentru membrii familiei lor, pentru comunitatea din care fac parte și pentru grija  imaginii ”de sine”, în care respectul pentru celălalt este maxim iar încrederea în grup este un atu și un avantaj în viața cotidiană.

Deși cultura japoneză este interesantă și îndepărtată, suntem cu toții de acord să spunem că, în fond, ea are aceleași preocupări existențiale ca și noi. Problemele financiare, matrimoniale, stresul muncii, presiunea studiilor și crizele personale sunt provocări cotidiene pe care psihologia japoneză încearcă să le gestioneze cu ajutorul unei apropieri analitice; acolo unde personalități ca Hayao Kawai se disting ca referințe clinice dintre cele mai pertinente.

Psihologia japoneză poate părea la prima vedere foarte diferită de psihologia orientală. Totuși, cele două au numeroase puncte în comun, abordări similare bazate pe principiile psihologiei orientale sau ale budismului care formează o abordare bazată pe dezvoltarea personală și rezistență”.

De altfel, un fapt este adesea comentat în ceea ce privește Japonia: această țară prezintă un procent de sinucideri foarte important, unul din cele mai ridicate din lume. Cu toate acestea este adevărat că țările nordice sunt astăzi cele care se află în capul acestei liste, din 2006 sinuciderile din rândul populației japoneze scăzând semnificativ.

Factori ca șomajul sau presiunea locului de muncă sunt elementele care au apăsat cel mai mult asupra populației japoneze, din acest punct de vedere. Guvernul a investit considerabil însă în domeniul tratamentelor psihologice și a prevenției suicidului, tendință care tinde a se concentra în marii poli economici ca Tokyo, care sunt departe de echilibrul și satisfacția vitală de care japonezii dispun, de exemplu, în zonele cele mai rurale.

 

Cele cinci chei ale psihologiei japoneze

Grație lucrărilor ca ”Psihologia socială a lumii moderne din Japonia” de Munesuke Mita, putem observa, din punctul nostru de vedere occidental, numeroasele abordări ce hrănesc această cultură.

Pentru a înțelege în profunzime filozofia  de viață și dinamicile care compun psihologia japoneză, ne-ar fi util să înțelegem cinci indicii foarte specifice asupra modului în care japonezii își gestionează emoțiile, relațiile sau care sunt strategiile folosite în general de psihologi pentru promovarea confortului mental.

Lumea emoțională: tateme și honne

Japonezii sunt foarte promți în a-și raționaliza emoțiile și, în maniera lor de a le exprima, sunt în general destul de rezervați și uneori chiar ermetici.

Astfel, este interesat de știut că ei își gestionează lumea emoțională în funcție de contextul în care se găsesc. Tateme, de exemplu, se referă la comportamentul în public, acolo unde rezerva trebuie să fie maximă, unde respectul, echilibrul și moderația sunt scoase în evidență.

Honne se referă la emoțiile pe care fiecare persoană le poate avea în privat, acasă. Este vorba aici de un punct de vedere spiritual. Psihologia japoneză își găsește originile în budism și taoism, acolo unde fiecare trebuie să-și găsească propriul drum și propria cale de vindecare.

 Încrederea în grup

Japonia este o societate ce dispunde de un concept de comunitate și de coeziune socială foarte puternice. Respectul familiei cât și respectul comunității sunt puternic valorizate, ceea ce se traduce prin căutarea sistematică a binelui comun și nu a beneficiului individual. De exemplu, orice persoană care are gripă nu va ezita să iasă cu o mască, pentru a evita transmiterea bolii celorlalte persoane.

Ei se identifică cu grupul, există un ”eu” social foarte solid, foarte definit și, în fond, acest lucru le-a fost foarte util pentru a face față catastrofelor, ca cea survenită în 2011 – tsunami și cutremurul de pământ care a devastat o mare parte a prefecturii Fukushima.

 Arugama, acceptarea lucrurilor așa cum sunt ele.

Acceptarea este un concept adânc ancorat în psihologia japoneză. Acceptarea nu este totuși mereu sinonimă cu abandonul sau cu resemnarea. Japonezii știu că fiecare material sau substanță caracterizată de rezistență sfârșește întotdeauna prin a se sparge, a se fisura sau a se rupe în două.  Cine nu acceptă și rezista nu curge, nu se adaptează, nu supraviețuiește.

Arugama este esența schimbării care se produce după acceptare, după asumarea faptului că lucrurile sunt cum sunt și că nu există altă alegere decât de a continua să mergi înainte.

 

Atenția

Așa numita ”terapie Morita” este foarte comună în psihologia japoneză, un tip de strategie psihologică bazată pe atenția centrată asupra sinelui. Este vorba de un lucru care ne spune tuturor ceva (ea este foarte similară terapiei raționale și emoționale a lui Albert Ellis) dar pe care cultura orientală o practică totuși de numeroși ani. Una din principalele caracteristici ale acestui tip de terapie este faptul de a fi conștienți de propriile noastre experiențe interne, de suferință, de frustrare, de teamă, de anxietate, etc.

Astfel, odată ce persoana este în contact cu realitatea lui personală, terapeutul recomandă în general patru strategii pentru favorizarea restabilirii: repaosul absolut, meditația, o nutriție adecvată și o pregătire graduală pentru viața cotidiană.

 Reflecția la propriile noastre istorii, legându-le de natură

Acest tip de abordare este foarte interesantă. Nevoia de a practica introspecția este în general transmisă oamenilor în psihologia japoneză. Ei trebuie să fie capabili să vadă în perspectivă propriile lor istorii, tot ceea ce au trăit, ce au suferit, descoperit și apreciat. Ei sunt invitați să-și vadă istoria persoanală ca pe un eveniment care se produce și în natură.

Creștem și murim toți, traversăm toți perioade care lasă urme profunde asemănătoare celor pe care le au arborii pe trunchiuri. În plus, fiecare dintre noi se poate dezvolta în ciuda situațiilor potrivnice, hrănindu-și rădăcinile pentru a deveni o ființă mai puternică.

Viața este un flux constant, ca un rău care nu se oprește niciodată, ca vântul care mișcă frunzele și suprafața oceanelor…Departe de a ne simți victimele destinului, putem fi ca natura, întotdeauna gata să ne reînnoim, pentru a putea germina….

Pentru a concluziona, după cum am putut constata, psihologia japoneză nu este atât de necunoscută pe cum ar putea părea. Un mare număr din apropiații noștri se hrănesc cu aceste principii de dezvoltare personală și se inspiră pentru viața cotidiană….A le aplica, dacă dorim, ne poate fi, de asemenea, foarte util.

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